Beginning in the 19th century dolls' heads were often made of porcelain and combined with a body of leather, cloth, wood, or composite materials, like papier-mâché or composition, a mix of pulp, sawdust, glue and similar materials. With the advent of polymer and plastic materials in the 20th century, doll making largely shifted to these materials. The low cost, ease of manufacture, and durability of plastic materials meant new types of dolls could be mass produced at a lower price. From the mid-20th century soft vinyl became the dominant material, in particular for childrens dolls. Beginning in the 20th century, both porcelain and plastic dolls were made directly for the adult collectors market.
Fashion dolls, unlike the traditional baby dolls, are primarily designed to be dressed to reflect fashion trends and are usually modeled after teen girls or adult women. The earliest fashion dolls were French bisque dolls from the mid-19th century. Contemporary fashion dolls are typically made of vinyl. Mattel's Barbie, the first and certainly most important 'modern' fashion doll, has dominated the market from her inception in 1959.